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艺术随笔|在线观看弗里达·卡罗的身体与她的爱情 Art Essay| Frida Kahlo's body and her romance

已更新:4月 20

(中/EN)

2020年3月2日,如雷轰顶的一则消息震响了各大艺术媒体的头条新闻版面。那段我们都知道的爱情,不是胡兰成和张爱玲,是全世界仅有的最为纯粹的乌雷和玛丽娜。这一段故事随着乌雷逝世的消息,又一次地,深刻地,发酵在各个文字工作者笔下的一行行铅字中。


不论是文学界还是艺术领域里,这类的爱情象征,一直是充满神秘,令人欣羡。你很清楚地知道自己看不见地底的洞,目测不了水有多深,唯有尽情地遨游在想像空间里,才能稍稍接近它的真实。而谈到这类爱情里的惊涛骇浪,怎么能不提到这位女性主义者的先驱,艺术界与时尚圈的灵感缪斯,弗里达·卡罗。


活在镜像中的弗里达·卡罗

|Frida Kahlo by Julien Levy


身为举世名作的弗里达·卡罗本身,她的自我认同与创作灵感很大部分来自于她的身体与她的爱情。卡罗生来疑似患有脊柱裂,在六岁时被诊断为小儿麻痹症,导致她的右腿比左腿瘦。借由在身体的恢复期间,卡罗开始在床上画起自画像。她有一个特制的画架,画架上方放了一面镜子,方便她能看到自己。有一次她说: “我画我自己,因为我经常是孤独的,因为我是我最了解的对象。” 在拉康的镜像理论与自我建构中,这是一种主体在象征界中所认同的自我,事实上仅是一个虚幻的存在。卡罗在主体建构的镜像阶段中将镜中的完美形象想像为自己本身,然而由于所认同的对象为外在的他者,而非真实的主体,因此主体将陷入永远的“异化”(alienation)。如同英国的精神分析学家达里安·莱德曾说过的,人类主体摆荡于两个极端之间:一是形象,即是异化和疏离;一是真实的身体,即是支离破碎,那破碎的卡罗。


一直到卡罗最后的日子里,她依旧如同一个虚幻的存在,又或者说其实是她活在我们所想像中的卡罗形象里。当时她的身体状况已经恶化到必须将右腿截肢,而在墨西哥的最后一场展览会场中,她如往常般地身着华丽装束。即使是倚着病床出场,也能依稀看见她正踩踏着五光十色的光板,绚烂夺目。“大家小心点,这里有一具活着的尸体。”卡罗玩笑地说。


爱只不过是灵感的一种形式

|Frida Kahlo by Julien Levy

在大病初愈后,卡罗遇到了她钦慕已久的墨西哥壁画家迭戈·里维拉,从此痴迷于他。卡罗和里维拉的关系并非什么典型的爱情故事,他们混乱争吵,多次婚外情,在1939年离婚,1940年又再婚。在满布爱恨情仇的支离生活中,卡罗和里维拉相互作画长达25年之久,这样混杂交织的特殊样貌到底在卡罗的生活里长出了什么?卡罗在作品《我脑海中的迭戈》赤裸地呈现情感的磨难,把里维拉的脸庞钉在额上,画中的她郁郁的凝望着观者,看不出是沐浴爱河,还是囚徒禁锢。这种依靠内在的诗意力量而非绘画逻辑规则把来自个人经验的意象与形式上的象征和美学因素结合到一起的作法,最经常体现在艺术家情侣的作品上。


在他们的爱情里,这些复杂的情绪是养品还是消耗品,该怎么保存,该怎么平衡,该怎么转换,才能让灵感这捉摸不透的东西,时常可以恭候驾临。政治家周恩来对艺术家间创作灵感的体现曾说道,“我们不能忘记灵感的同智力,艺术家知识积累的必然联系,在对灵感认知尚处于进程中的现状,我们暂又不能回避其有神秘的一面。“ 有时候不禁在心里质疑,艺术家们的爱情,是一种内心浅层的交易行为,还是一种无意识下的融合关系,也或许这就是在卡罗和里维拉灵感与情欲之间的一种动态平衡。


|Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera reclining


47岁生日那天,日记里的最后一句:“我愿快乐地离开,不愿再来。”不知其死因的卡罗的死,一记悬性,一抹灵动,让卡罗永远的活在作品里,壮烈而优美。而近日为纪念卡罗的壮烈优美,谷歌艺术与文化(Google Arts & Culture)正与33家博物馆合作,主办一场弗里达·卡罗史诗般的线上展览,将带领民众重返47岁的卡罗在墨西哥的最后一场展览现场。


--(EN)


On March 2nd, 2020, a piece of news, such as thunder roof, shook the headlines of major art media. That we all know the love, not Hu Lancheng and Eileen Chang, is the world only the most pure Ulay and Marina. This story is based on the news of Ulay's death, and once again, profoundly, fermented in the text of various writers.


In both literary and artistic circles, such symbols of love have always been mysterious and enviable. We know very well that you can't see the holes in the ground, you can't see how deep the water is, and you can only get a little closer to the reality by swimming in the imaginary space. When it comes to the stormy waters of this kind of love, it's hard not to mention the feminist pioneer and Muse of the art and fashion worlds, Frida Kahlo.


Frida Kahlo in a mirror image

As one of the most famous works in the world, Frida Khalo herself, her self-identity and creative inspiration come largely from her body and her love. Khalo was born with suspected spina bifida and was diagnosed with polio at the age of six, leaving her right leg thinner than her left. During her recovery, Khalo began to paint self-portraits on her bed. She had a special easel with a mirror above it so she could see herself. Once she said, "I paint myself, because I am often lonely, because I am the one I know best." In Jacques Laca's theory of mirror image and self-construction, this is a kind of self identification by the subject in the symbolic world, but in fact it is only an unreal existence. Khalo imagines the perfect image in the mirror as herself in the mirror phase of subject construction, but the subject will fall into permanent "alienation" because the identified object is the external other rather than the real subject. As the British psychoanalyst Darian Leader has said, the human subject swings between two extremes: image, and alienation; One is the real body, which is broken, the broken Khalo.


Until Khalo's last day, she was still an unreal existence, or in fact she lived in the image of Khalo in our imagination. Her condition had deteriorated to the point where she had to have her right leg amputated, and at the last show in Mexico, she was dressed in her usual garish attire. Even when she came out on her sickbed, also can dimly see she is treading on the colorful light plate, gorgeous dazzing. "Be careful, everyone. There's a living dead body here." Khalo said jokingly.


Love is but a form of inspiration

After recovering from a serious illness, Khalo met Diego Rivera, the Mexican muralist, who she admired for a long time, and became obsessed with him. Khalo and Rivera's relationship was not a typical love story, with messy arguments, multiple affairs, divorce in 1939 and remarriage in 1940. What happened to the extraordinary mixture of Khalo and Rivera painting each other for 25 years in a fragmented life of love and hate. In his work “Diego on My Mind”, Khalo nakedly presents the emotional tribulations, pinning Rivera's face to her forehead. In the painting, she gazes at the audience sadly, unable to see whether she is in love or as a prisoner. The combination of imagery from personal experience with formal symbolism and aesthetic elements by relying on internal poetic power rather than on the logical rules of painting is most often reflected in the work of the artistic couple.


In their love, these complex emotions are nutrients or consumables? How to preserve, how to balance, how to change, so that the inspiration of this elusive thing, can often appear. The statesman Zhou Enlai once said, "we should not forget the inevitable connection between inspiration and intelligence, and the accumulation of artists' knowledge. In the process of cognition of inspiration, we cannot avoid its mysterious side”. Sometimes I wonder whether the love of the artists is an inner transaction or an unconscious fusion, or perhaps it is a dynamic balance between inspiration and passion in Kahlo and Rivera.


On his 47th birthday, the last words in hers diary were: "I would like to leave happily and never come back." The death of Kahlo, whose cause of death is unknown, is a piece of suspense and a touch of clever, so that Kahlo will live forever in the works, heroic and beautiful. In honor of Kahlo's Prowess, Google Arts & Culture is partnering with 33 museums to host an epic online exhibition of Frida Kahlo that will take the public back to the 47 year old's last show in Mexico.

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